“Disability” is nothing but an impairment or restriction in a person’s ability to function normally. This can be caused by one or several changes in various subsystems of the body, or the mental health. The degree of disability may range from mild to moderate, severe, or profound .A person may have one or multiple disabilities.
Conditions causing disability are broadly categorized as inherited ,congenital the one caused by a mother’s infection or other disease during pregnancy, embryonic or fetal developmental irregularities, or by injury during or soon after birth ,acquired, such as conditions caused by illness or injury ( sudden fever, accidents)
Types of disabilities are not mutually exclusive i.e. each type of disability may impact one or more categories of disability. However disabilities are classified as follows:
Physical & sensory disability
Physical disability is any condition which restricts or causes impairment in the movement of limbs or fine bones of the body whereas Sensory disability is impairment of one or more senses. It includes vision loss of a person, deafness (condition in which individuals are fully or partially unable to perceive at least some frequencies of sound which can be heard by other people),Olfactory and gustatory impairment (Impairment of the sense of smell and taste and are commonly associated with aging),Insensitivity to stimuli such as touch, heat, cold, and pain are often an adjunct to a more general physical impairment involving neural pathways and is very commonly associated with paralysis is known as Somatosensory impairment
Balance disorder & Intellectual disability
A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking. Balance is the result of co-ordination between several body systems working together. The visual system, vestibular system and proprioception need to be intact. The brain, which compiles this information, needs to be functioning effectively.
Intellectual disability is a concept that ranges from mental retardation to cognitive deficits too mild or too specific to qualify as mental retardation. Intellectual disabilities may appear at any age.
A disability of any sort presents challenges to the affected person and people around them in day to day life .However the advent of new technology in the healthcare domain enables them to cope up with the challenges and have a fulfilling life that’s living how they want to.